While migraine is often triggered by environmental factors such as stress, impaired sleep, and menstruation, recent findings have shed light on the significant genetic influence associated with the disorder according to this article.
There is up to a 4-fold increase in risk in people with a first-degree relative affected by migraines, and twin studies have demonstrated approximately 42% heritability.
Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) comprises an estimated two-thirds of hemiplegic migraine (HM) cases and is diagnosed when a patient with HM has at least 1 first- or second-degree relative with the disorder. In studies, FHM shows genetic heterogeneity with 70% to 90% penetrance. There are currently available diagnostic tests via DNA sequencing that can be used to define these FHM gene mutations, and this information helps in defining the treatment choices.